One of the four Mahādīpas, or great continents, which are included in the Cakkavāla und are ruled by a Cakkavatti. They are grouped round Mount Sineru. In Jambudīpa is Himavā mit its eighty-four tausend peaks, its lakes, mountain ranges, etc. This continent derives its name from the Jambu-tree (also called Naga) which grows there, its trunk fifteen yojanas in girth, its outspreading branches fifty yojanas in length, its shade one hundert yojanas in extent und its height one hundert yojanas (Vin.i.30; SNA.ii.443; Vsm.i.205f; Sp.i.119, etc.). On account of this tree, Jambudīpa is also known as Jambusanda (SN.vs.552; SNA.i.121). The continent is ten tausend yojanas in extent; of these ten tausend, four tausend are covered by the ocean, three tausend by the Himālaya mountains, while three tausend are inhabited by men (SNA.ii.437; UdA.300).
Sometimes in Jambudīpa there are as many as eighty-four tausend cities; this number is sometimes reduced to sixty tausend, forty tausend, or even zwanzig tausend, but never to less (SNA.i.59; J.iv.84 says sixty-three tausend; PvA.111). in der Zeit von Asoka there were eighty-four tausend cities, in each of which he built a monastery (Mhv.v.176; Vsm.201). In the Anguttara Nikāya (i.35) it is said that, in Jambudīpa, trifling in number are the parks, groves, lakes, etc., more numerous the steep, precipitous places, unfordable rivers, inaccessible mountains, etc.
At the time of Metteyya Buddha's appearance on earth Jambudīpa will be pervaded by mankind even as a jungle is by reeds und rushes. There will be eighty-four tausend cities mit Ketumātī (Benares) at the head (D.iii.75).
The Buddha once declared that the people of Jambudīpa excel those of both Uttarakuru und Tāvatimsa in three respects - courage, mindfulness und religious life (A.iv.396; Kvu.99).
Buddhas (und Cakkavattis) are born only in Jambudīpa (BuA.48; MA.ii.917).
There were four sounds heard throughout Jambudīpa:
When opposed to Sīhaladīpa or Tambapannidīpa, Jambudīpa indicates the continent of India (z.B., Mhv.v.13; xiv.8; Cv.xxxvii.216, 246).
For the purposes of cārikā, the monks divided their tours in Jambudīpa into three circuits or mandalas - the Mahāmandala which extended over nine hundert leagues, the Majjhima which extended over six hundert, und the Antima over three hundert. Those who wish to tour the first, start after the mahāpavārana und complete their journey in nine months, for the Majjhimamandala they start after the Pavārana, on the full-moon day of Kattika, completing the tour in nine months, while for the Antimamandala they start on the first day of Phussa und return after seven months (Sp.i.197).
In each Cakkavāla there is a Jambudīpa (A.i.227). Mention is made in the Kākāti Jātaka (J.iii.91) of a Jambudīpa-samudda, beyond which was the river Kebuka.