1. Malaya. A mountainous district in South India. E.g., J.iv.327; Cv.lxxvi.195.
2. Malaya. The mountainous country of Ceylon, originally the home of the Pulindā (Mhv.vii.68; see Mhv.Trs.60, n. 5). When Dutthagāmanī fled from his father's wrath, it was in Malaya that he hid (Mhv.xxiv.7). In Malaya was the Ambatthakolalena, from which Dutthagāmanī obtained silver for the Mahā Thūpa (Mhv.xxviii.20). The hill country provided protection from marauders who invaded Ceylon (E.g., in the case of Vattagāmanī; Mhv.xxxiii.62; also xxxv.26), and also from those causing danger to the rightful ruler (E.g., ibid., xxxvi.50; Cv.xli.20; l.20). When Buddhism was threatened by the activities of unbelievers who had obtained possession of Anurādhapura, it was to Malaya and to Rohana that the monks fled in order to save themselves and their teaching (E.g., Mhv.xxxvii.6). Malaya also afforded shelter to rebels against the government both during preparations for attack and, if necessary, during their flight (E.g., Cv.xli.10; xliv.62; xlviii.98; li.112f.; lvii.47, 57).
In later times Malaya was treated as a special province, and was in charge of an official called Malayarāja, who was generally the king's younger son, the elder being viceroy in charge of the Eastern Province (Pācīnadesa). The district of Dakkhinadesa was included in Malaya (See Cv.xli.33ff.; lii.68; Cv. Trs.i.54, n.4; but see Cv.xlii.6, 10; xliv.43 li.13; liii.36), but it was later separated (Cv.li.8). The Yuvarāja himself was sometimes Malayarājā, particularly when the other provinces were in the hands of enemies (E.g., Cv.lviii.7). Mention is also made (Cv.lxix.6) of a Malayarājā who was in charge of a Damila army (probably of mercenaries). In times of war the people of Malaya usually gave a great deal of trouble as the country was difficult of access (E.g., Cv.lxx.30). Some of the villages in Malaya were composed of only one house. Sp.ii.298.
3. Malaya. The mountainous district of Rāmañña. Cv.lxxvi.22.