A banyan tree which is famous in Buddhist literature. It was in Uruvelā, on the banks of the Nerañjara, near the Bodhi tree, and a week after the Enlightenment the Buddha went there and spent a week cross-legged at the foot of the tree. There he met the Huhunkajātika Brahmin (Vin.i.2-3). Two weeks later he went there again from the Rajāyatana (Vin.i.4). It was then that the Brahma Sahampati appeared to him and persuaded him to preach the doctrine, in spite of the difficulty of the task (Vin.i.5-7; in the eighth week after the Enlightenment, says Buddhaghosa, SA.i.152). This was immediately after the meal offered by Tapassu and Bhalluka, so says the Majjhima Atthakathā (i.385; J.i.81). When the Buddha wishes to have someone as his teacher, Sahampati appears again and suggests to him that the Dhamma be considered his teacher (A.ii.20f.; S.i.138f).
By Ajapāla-nigrodha it was, too, that, immediately after the Enlightenment, Mara tried to persuade the Buddha to die at once (D.ii.112). Several other conversations held here with Mara are recorded in the Samyutta (S.i.103f).
Here, also, the Buddha spent some time before the Enlightenment (D.ii.267), and it was here that Sujata offered him a meal of milk-rice (J.i.16, 69).
Here, in the fifth week after the Enlightenment, Mara's daughters tried to tempt the Buddha (J.i.78, 469).'
Several etymologies are suggested for the name:
The northern Buddhists say that the tree was planted by a shepherd boy, during the Bodhisatta's six years' penance, to shelter him (Beal, Romantic Legend of Buddha,192, 238; Mtu.iii.302).
The Brahmā Sutta (S.v.167) and the Magga Sutta (S.v.185), both on the four satipatthāna, and another Brahmā Sutta (S.v.232f) on the five indriyāni, were concerning thoughts that occurred to the Buddha on various occasions at the foot of this tree, when he sat there soon after the Enlightenment. On all these occasions Brahma Sahampati appeared to him and confirmed his thoughts. Several old brahmins, advanced in years, visited the Buddha during this period and questioned him as to whether it were true that he did not pay respect to age. To them he preached the four Thera-karanā dhamma. A.ii.22.