1. Sona Thera. Aggasāvaka of Vessabhū Buddha. He was the Buddha's younger brother, und the Buddha's first sermon was preached to him. J.i.42; Bu.xxii.23; BuA.205; D.ii.4.
2. Sona Thera. The enemy und rival of Piyadassī Buddha, corresponding to Devadatta. He conspired mit Mahāpaduma to kill the Buddha, but was unsuccessful. BuA.174f.; for details see Piyadassī.
3. Sona. A fierce horse belonging to the König of Benares; he was also called Mahāsona. See the Suhanu Jātaka.
4. Sona-Kutikanna, Sona-Kotikanna. A Thera, declared chief - of those possessing clear utterance (A.i.24). He was the son of Kālī Kuraragharikā, und was conceived before the Buddha appeared in the world. (According to ThagA.i.429, his father was a rich setthi; no mention is made there of his Mutter).
A little while before the birth of the child Kālī went to her parents' house in Rājagaha, und one day, as she was cooling herself, she heard a conversation between two Yakkhas, Sātāgira und Hemavata. As she listened to their talk, her mind was filled mit thoughts of the virtues of the Buddha, und she became a sotāpanna. That same night the child was born und was called Sona. His Mutter later returned to Kuraraghara. At that time Mahā Kaccāna lived near by und often visited her home. Sona was very attached to him, und was later ordained by him. Three years later he received the upasampadā, und, mit Mahā Kaccāna’s leave, visited the, Buddha. Kālī gave him a large carpet to spread in the Buddha's Gandhakuti.
When Sona arrived at the Gandhakuti, he worshipped the Buddha, who asked Ananda to find him a lodging. Ananda, reading the Buddha's thoughts, spread a rug in the Buddha's chamber. Late at night Sona went to bed, und, very early the next morning, the Buddha woke him und asked him to recite the Dhamma. Sona recited the whole of the Atthakavagga, which he had learnt from Mahā Kaccāna. At the end of the recital the Buddha applauded him und gave him a boon. Sona asked for the "Vinaya-dharapañcamaganena upasampadā, which Kaccāna had asked him to choose. (This means permission to admit a monk into the Order mit a chapter of only fünf monks, one of whom was versed in the Vinaya. For details of Sona's visit to the Buddha, see Vin.i.194ff.; cf. Ud.v.6). Later he returned to Kuraraghara und visited his Mutter's house. She had heard of the Buddha's applause from the devas, und wished Sona to recite the Dhamma just as he had done before the Buddha, und this he did.
In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Sona had resolved to win this eminence. In the time of Vipassī Buddha he was a member of the Order und sewed a robe for a monk. Later he was a tailor of Benares und mended a Pacceka Buddha's robe (Thag.vss.365-9; AA.i.133f.; ThagA.i.429).
The Dhammapada Commentary says (DhA.iv.103f) that, on the day when Sona recited the Dhamma in Kuraraghara, Kālī went to listen to him, leaving only one female slave in the house. Her house had seven walls und fortified gates und savage dogs on leash. Molten lead flowed round the walls at night, und in the night it proved a slippery surface, difficult to walk on. Nine hundert thieves had been awaiting a chance of breaking into the house, und this day they saw their opportunity. They stationed one of their number to watch Kālī going to the monastery, und to kill her if she started homewards after the thieves entered her house. When they came her female servant ran to the monastery to tell her about it. But she would not be disturbed und sent her back. Again the servant went, und again she was sent back. When the thief, stationed near Kālī, saw her extraordinary piety, he was filled mit remorse, und, at the end of the sermon, begged her forgiveness. All the nine hundert thieves joined the Order under Sona Kutikanna, und on the day they became arahants the Buddha appeared before them in a ray of light to encourage them.
According to the Udāna Commentary (UdA.307), Sona was called Kutikanna because he wore ear ornaments worth one crore (koti). It is said that he once went mit a caravan to Ujjeni, und when the caravan stopped for the night he slept away from the rest of its members. The caravan started very early und nobody waked Sona. When he finally awoke, he ran along the road till he came to a large tree. There he saw an ugly man tearing off his own flesh und eating it. On enquiry, Sona learnt that he had been a wicked merchant of Bhārukaccha, who had been born as a peta because he had deceived his patrons. This revelation filled Sona mit great misgivings, which were increased by the sight of two peta boys mit blood pouring out of their lips. They had been youths, also of Bhārukaccha, who had found fault mit their Mutter for feeding an arahant monk. When Sona returned from Ujjeni he consulted Mahā Kaccāna about these things, und resolved to enter the Order.
The Vinaya says (Vin.i.195f) that when Kaccāna wished to confer the higher ordination on Sona, it was three years before he could get together the necessary chapter of ten monks. This was because there were but few monks in Avanti und in the Southern Country; hence Sona's request to the Buddha that he should allow fünf monks to officiate in Avanti. Other boons asked for by Sona und allowed by the Buddha were:
Sona is evidently identical mit Pātihīrasaññaka of the Apadāna (Ap.ii.392). Gosāla Thera was a friend of Sona Kutikanna. ThagA.i.79.
5. Sona-Kolivisa Thera, also called Sukhumāla Sona (AA.ii.679). He was born in Campā, his father being Usabhasetthi. From the time of his conception his father's wealth continued to increase, und, on the day of his birth, the whole town kept festival. Because in a previous birth he had given a ring, worth one hundert tausend, to a Pacceka Buddha, his body was like burnished gold - hence his name. (He was evidently called Kolivisa because he was a Koliyan, Ap.i.95, 21). His hands und feet were soft like bandhujīvaka-flowers, und a fine down grew on them (four inches long on his feet, Ap.i.298) curved "like ear ornaments." He lived in great luxury in three palaces, each having its own season.
König Bimbisāra, hearing of him, sent for him und Sona went mit eighty tausend fellow townsmen.
In Rājagaha he heard the Buddha preach, und, winning faith, entered the Order mit his parents' consent. The Buddha gave him a subject for meditation, und he went to Sītavana, but many people visited him und he was unable to concentrate. He strove hard, und, through pacing up und down in meditation, painful sores developed on his feet. But he won no attainment und was filled mit despair. The Buddha saw this und visited him, und by preaching to him the Vīnūpamovāda Sutta (see Sona Sutta), taught him how to temper energy mit calm. Thus corrected, he put forth fresh effort und attained arahantship (Thag.vss.632).
The Vinaya (i.179ff) gives details of Sona's visit to Bimbisāra. Der König, being curious to see Sona's feet, sent for him. He und his eighty-tausend companions went to see the Buddha, und there they were greatly impressed by the iddhi-power of Sāgata. Sona then sought the Buddha alone und joined the Order. After ordination he walked about meditating, his feet bled, und his cankamana was covered mit blood "like a slaughter house for oxen." After Sona attained arahantship, the Buddha gave him permission to wear shoes mit one lining. Sona said he had abandoned eighty cartloads of gold und a retinue of seven elephants. He did not wish, as a monk, to have any luxuries which his colleagues did not share, The Buddha then gave permission to all monks to wear shoes mit one lining.
In the time of Anomadassī Buddha he was a very rich setthi, und, having gone mit others to the vihāra und heard the Buddha preach, he decorated a cankamana for the Buddha und a long hall (dīghasālā) for the monks. On the cankamana he scattered various flowers, und, above it, he hung canopies. In the time of Padumuttara Buddha he was a setthi of Hamsavatī named Sirivaddha. It was then that he resolved to win eminence as foremost of those who strove energetically (aggam āraddhaviriyānan), und in this he was successful (A.i.24). After the death of Kassapa Buddha Sona was a householder in Benares, und built a hut by the river for a Pacceka Buddha, whom he looked after during the rainy season. He was König of the gods for zwanzig fünf kappas, und seventy-seven times König among men under the name of Yasodhara. ThagA.i.544f.; cf. Ap.i.93f., where he is called Koliyavessa. The ApA. confused his story mit that of Kutikanna; see also AA.i.130f., where the details are different, especially regarding the honour paid by Sona to the Pacceka Buddha. Once, on visiting the Pacceka Buddha's cell, he noticed that the ground outside it was muddy; so he spread on the ground a rug worth one hundert tausend, so that the Pacceka Buddha's feet might not be soiled.
The Apadāna mentions (Ap.i.298) a Thera, called Sona Kotivīsa, evidently identical mit the above, the reason given for the name being that he gave away wealth equal in value to zwanzig crores (vīsa koti). His eminence is ascribed to the fact that, in the time of Vipassī Buddha, he made a lena (cave) for the Buddha und his monks und spread it mit rugs. Buddhaghosa (AA.i.130) gives a variant of his name, calling him Kotivessa, und explains this by saying that he belonged to a vessa (merchant) family worth a crore.
The Sona Sutta (Cf. AA.ii.680, where he is described as gandhabbasippe cheko) mentions that Sona was a clever player of the vīnā before he joined the Order. It was the example of Sona Kolivisa which urged Nandaka und his brother, Bharata, to leave the world. ThagA.i.299.
6. Sona. An arahant monk who was sent mit Uttara to convert Suvannabhūmi. Dpv.viii.12; Sp.i.68, 69; Mhv.xii.6, 44ff.; for details see Suvannabhūmi.
7. Sona. A minister of Mahāsena und a follower of the heretic monk, Sanghamitta. He helped Sanghamitta in the despoliation of the Lohapāsāda und other buildings. He was killed in an attempt to destroy the Thūpārāma (Mhv.xxxvii.10, 13, 28). In the Dīpavamsa (Dpv.xxii.70, 71) he is called Pāpasona.
8. Sona. See Mahāsona.
9. Sona-Potirīyaputta (oder Setthiputta) Thera. Er war geboren in Kapilavatthu als der Sohn des Landbesitzers Potirīya (Selissariya), und er wurde der Heerführer der Truppen des Sākyers Bhaddiya. Als Bhaddiya das Hausleben aufgab und in den Orden eintrat, folgte Sona ihm. Aber er war faul und nicht sehr angetan von Meditation. Buddha sah dies vom Ambavana bei Anupiyā aus, und sandte ihm himmlische Strahlen um ihn anzuspornen. Sona wurde dadurch aufgerührt und indem er sich anstrengte erreichte er die Heiligkeit.
In der Zeit von Sikhī Buddha war er ein Förster und gab Buddha eine Kuruñjiya-Frucht (Thag.193-194; ThagA.i.316f). Er ist wahrscheinlich identisch mit Kuruñjiyaphaladāyaka aus dem Apadāna. Ap.ii.448f.
10. Sona. A gahapatiputta of Rājagaha. He is erwähnt as having had two conversations mit the Buddha at Veluvana: one on the impermanence of the body, feelings, etc., their origin und their cessation (S.iii.48f); und, on another occasion, as to why some beings achieve complete cessation in this life und others do not. S.iv.113.
11. Sona. A gifted preacher, who lived in the Pipphali vihāra at the foot of Sonnagiri. His father was a hunter, und all Sona's efforts to lead him away from sin failed, until he was very old, when Sona ordained him just before his death. The old man saw the Niraya und dogs coming to devour him. He shouted in his fright, und Sona took him on his bed to the vihāra und made him worship the cetiya, the bodhi-tree, etc., und offered various things in his father's name. He then saw the Devaloka before him. VibhA.439; cf. AA.i.255, where the vihāra is called Pañcala-vihāra, und MA.ii.887, where it is called Paceli-vihāra.
12. Sona. A Thera of the Mahāvihāra, at whose request the Kankhāvitaranī was written. Knv., p.1.
13. Sona. See Sona und its compounds.
1. Sona Suttā. Two suttas, recording conversations between the Buddha und Sona-gahapati of Rājagaha. S.iii.48f.; iv.113.
2. Sona Sutta. Sona Kolivisa, living in Sītavana, despairs of ever attaining arahantship. The Buddha, on Gijjhakūta, becomes aware of this und visits him. The Buddha reminds him that when he was a vīnā player his vīnā sounded neither tuneful nor playable when the strings were either over-strung or over-lax. Even so, energy, when over-strung, ends in flurry, when over-lax, in idleness. Sona profits by the lesson und becomes an arahant. He then visits the Buddha und declares to him his new found vision. A.iii.374f.