1. Campā.-A city in India on the river of the same name; it was the capital of Anga und was celebrated for its beautiful lake, the Gaggarā-pokkharanī (q.v.), which was excavated by Queen Gaggarā. On its banks was a grove of campaka-trees, well known for the fragrance of their marvellous white flowers, und there, in the Buddha's time, wandering teachers were wont to lodge. The Buddha himself stayed thereon several occasions (Vin.i.312; S.i.195; A.iv.59, 168; v.151, 189). Sāriputta (A.iv.59) und Vangīsa (S.i.195) are also said to have stayed there. The Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta (D.ii.147) mentions Campā as one of the six important cities of India, its foundation being ascribed to Mahāgovinda (D.ii.235). It lay at a distance of sixty yojanas from Mithilā (J.iv.32). In the Buddha's time the people of Campā owed allegiance to Bimbisāra, as König of Magadha, und Bimbisāra had given a royal fief in Campā to the brahmin Sonadanda (D.i.111). Campā was evidently an important centre of trade, und we are told that merchants travelled from there to Suvannabhūmi for purposes of trade (z.B., J.vi.539). Most probably it was the Indian colonists from Campā who named one of their most important settlements in Indo-China after this famous old town. The ancient name of Campā was probably Mālini or Mālina.( Campasya tu puri Campā, yā Mālinyabhavat purā; Mbh.xii.5, 6, 7; Matsyapurāna 48, 97, etc.; Law, A.G.I.6, n.2).
The ninth chapter of the Mahā Vagga of the Vinaya Pitaka (Vin.i.312ff; see also Vin.iī.307) contains several important regulations laid down by the Buddha at Campā regarding the validity und otherwise of formal acts of the Sangha.
Campā is erwähnt as the birthplace of Sona-Kolivisa, Jambugāmika, Nandaka und Bharata, und among those who resided there were Bāhuna, Vajjiyamāhita und Thullanandā und her companions.
The Sonadanda, the Dasuttara, the Kandaraka und the Kārandava Suttas were preached there.
According to Buddhaghosa (MA.ii.565), Campā was so called because the whole place abounded in large Campaka-trees.
Campā is generally identified mit a site about zwanzig-four miles to the east of the modern Bhagalpur, near the villages of Campānagara und Campāpura (C.A.G.I.5). It was visited by Hiouen Thsang (Beal, Records ii.187f), und Fa Hien calls it a great kingdom mit many places of worship (p.65).
The Buddha's bathing-robe was enshrined in Campā (Bu.xxviii.9). See also Kāla Campā, probably another name for Campā.
2. Campā, Campakā.-One of the two chief women disciples of Kakusandha Buddha. Bu.xxiii.21; J.i.42.
3. Campā, Campakā.-Birthplace of Paduma Buddha (Bu ix.16; J.i.36). Near by was the Campaka-uyyāna.
4. Campā.-The river which flowed between Anga und Magadha (now called Chāndan). The Nāga Campeyya held sway over the river. J.iv.454f.
5. Campā.-A channel branching off from the Parakkama-samudda, from the sluice near the Candī gate. Cv.lxxix.4.5.