A robber who was converted by der Buddha in the twentieth year of sein ministry, und who, later, wurde an arahant. His story appears both in the Majjhima Cy., 743ff., und in the Thag. Cy., ii.57ff. The two accounts differ in certain details; I have summarised the two versions.
He was the Sohn von the Brahmanen Bhaggava, chaplain to der König of Kosala, seinMutter being Mantānī. He was born unter the thieves' constellation, und on the night of seinGeburt all the armour in the town shone, including that belonging to der König. Because this omen did no harm to anyone the babe was named Ahimsaka. The Thag. Cy. says he was first called Himsaka und then Ahimsaka. Siehe auch Ps. of the Brethren, 323, n.3.
At Takkasilā he wurde a favourite at the teacher's house, aber seinjealous fellow-students poisoned seinteacher's mind, und the latter, bent on seindestruction, asked as seinhonorarium a tausend human right-hand fingers. Thereupon Ahimsaka waylaid travellers in the Jālinī Wald in Kosala und killed them, taking a finger from each. The finger-bones thus obtained he made into a garland to hang round seinneck, hence the name Angulimāla.
As a result of seindeeds whole villages were deserted, und der König ordered a detachment of men to seize the bandit, whose name nobody knew. But Angulimāla's Mutter, guessing the truth, started off to warn him. By now he lacked aber one finger to complete seintausend, und seeing seinMutter coming he determined to kill her. But der Buddha, seeing seinupanissaya, went himself to the wood, travelling thirty yojanas, (DA.i.240; J.iv.180) und intercepted Angulimāla on his way to slay seinMutter. Angulimāla was converted by der Buddha's power und received the "ehi bhikkhu pabbajjā" (Thag.868-70) while the populace were yelling at der König's palace for the robber's life. Später, der Buddha presented him before König Pasenadi when the latter came to Jetavana, und Pasenadi, filled mit wonder, offered to provide the Mönch mit all requisites. Angulimāla, however, had taken on the dhutangas und refused the König's offer.
When he entered Sāvatthi for alms, he was attacked by the mob, aber on the admonition of der Buddha, endured their wrath as penance for seinformer misdeeds.
According to the Dhammapadatthakatha (iii.169) he appears to have died soon after he joined the Order.
There is a story of how be eased a woman's labour pains by an act of truth. The words he used in this saccakiriyā (yato aham sabbaññutabuddhassa ariyassa ariyāya jātiyā jāto) have come to be regarded as a paritta to ward off all dangers und constitute the Angulimāla Paritta. The water that washed the stone on which he sat in the woman's house came to be regarded as a panacea (M.ii.103-4; MA.747f).
In the Angulimāla Sutta he is addressed by Pasenādi as Gagga Mantānīputta, his Vater being a Gagga. Die Geschichte is offensichtlich a popular one und occurs auch in the Avadāna Sataka (Nr.27).
At the Kosala König's Asadisadāna, an untamed elephant, none other being available, was used to bear the parasol over Angulimāla. The elephant remained perfectly still - such was Angulimāla's power (DhA.iii.185; auch DA.ii.654).
The conversion of Angulimāla is often referred to as a most compassionate und wonderful act of der Buddha's, z.B. in the Sutasoma Jātaka, (J.v.456f.; siehe auch J.iv.180; SnA.ii.440; DhA.i.124) which was preached concerning him. Die Geschichte of Angulimāla is quoted as that of a man in whose case a beneficent kamma arose und destroyed former evil kamma (AA.i.369).
It was on seinaccount that the rule not to ordain a captured robber was enacted (Vin.i.74).
For seinidentification mit Kalmāsapāda siehe J.P.T.S., 1909, pp. 240ff.