Ajātasattu ist ein altvedischer Königsname, wörtlich: dem kein Feind gewachsen ist.
Er war der Sohn von Bimbisāra, König von Magadha, und Halb-Bruder von Abhayarājakumara. Er folgte seinem Vater auf den Thron. Seine Mutter war die Tochter von Mahākosala (Jat.239, Jat.283), und er heiratete Vajirā, Pasenadi's Tochter (Jat.492), von der er einen Sohn bekam namesn Udāyibhadda (D.i.50??).
Ajātasattu wuchs zu einem stattlichen und gut aussehenden Mann heran. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt suchte Devadatta nach einem Weg um sich an Buddha zu rächen und sah in dem jungen Prinzen dafür eine vortreffliche Waffe und versuchte alles um ihn auf seine Seite zu bringen. Ajatasattu war sehr beeindruckt von den magischen Kräften (iddhi) Devadattas und wurde sein treuer Anhänger (Vin.ii.185; J.i.185-6). Er baute ihm ein Kloster in Gayāsīsa und wartete ihm auf mit Lebensmittel in Hülle und Fülle, am Morgen und am Abend, bis zu fünfhundert Kochtöpfe voll (S.17.36).
Devadatta stachelte ihn auf den Thron zu besteigen und den Vater zu töten wenn es nötig sein sollte. Als Bimbisāra davon erfuhr verzichtete er freiwillig auf den Thron und übergab ihn dem Prinzen. Aber Devadatta war damit nicht zufrieden und stachelte solange bis Bimbisāra, der größte Unterstützer Buddhas tot war (DA.i.135-7). Nach dem Sankicca Jātaka (Jat.530) hatte Ajātasattu auch schon in einem früheren Leben seinen Vater getötet.
Ajātasattu half auf verschiedene Weise bei Devadattas Versuchen Buddha zu töten. In der Sanjiva Jātaka (Jat.150) wird uns überliefert, dass er in vergangenen Leben sündigte und dadurch als Ergebnis sein Leben verlor.
Later he was filled mit remorse for these past misdeeds as he confesses himself (D.i.85); but evidently, for very shame, he refrained from visiting the Buddha till he was won over by the persuasions of his physician Jīvaka Komārabhacca. And when in the end he did go to the Buddha, it was in great fear und trembling; so nervous was he that he imagined conspirators in the very silence surrounding the Buddha where he dwelt in the monastery, in Jivaka's Mango grove at Rājagaha (D.i.49-50; J.v.262-9. An illustration of this visit is the subject of one of the bas-reliefs on the Barhut Tope; Cunningham, Pl. xvi., fig.36, und p.135).
It was on the occasion of this visit that the Sāmaññaphala Sutta was preached. Der König admits that he had been to various teachers before, but had failed to find satisfaction in their teachings. It is noteworthy that the Buddha greets the König cordially on his arrival und makes no mention whatever of the König's impiety. Instead, when Ajātasattu expresses his repentance at the end of the discourse, the Buddha accepts his confession und lets him off almost too lightly. But after the König had departed the Buddha tells the monks how the König's misdeeds had wrought his undoing both in this world und the next, for if he had not been guilty of them, the Eye of Truth (Sotāpattimagga, says the Commentary) would have been opened for him on the occasion of this sermon. (D.i.85-6). It is said that from the day of his father's death he could not sleep on account of terrifying dreams, particularly after he had heard of Devadatta's dire fate (J.i.508). He slept after his visit to the Buddha (DA.i.238).
Henceforth the König became a loyal adherent of the Buddha's faith, though, as far as we know, he never waited again either upon the Buddha or upon any member of the Order for the discussion of ethical matters. (But see DA.i.238, where we are told "tinnam ratanānam mahāsakkāram akāsi"). He was so full of love und respect for the Buddha that when he heard of Upaka Mandikāputta having spoken rather impolitely to the Buddha, he at once flew into a rage (A.ii.182).
Sakka said of him that among the puthujjanas he was most possessed of piety (DA.ii.610). When the Buddha died, in the eighth year of Ajātasattu reign (Mhv.ii.32), the latter's ministers decided not to tell him the news at once, in case he should die of a broken heart. On the pretext of warding off the evil effects of a dream, they placed him in a vat filled mit the four kinds of sweet (catumadhura) und broke the sad news gently to him. He immediately fainted, und it was not till they put him in two other vats und repeated the tidings that he realised their implication (DA.ii.605-6). He forthwith gave himself up to great lamentation und despair, "like a madman," calling to mind the Buddha's various virtues und visiting various places associated in his mind mit the Buddha. Later he sent messengers to claim his share of the Buddha's relics, und when he obtained them he prolonged the rites held in their honour till the arahants had to seek Sakka's aid to make the König take the relics away to Rājagaha, where he erected over them a stone thupa (DA.ii.610). Two months afterwards, when the first Council was held, he gave the undertaking his royal patronage und assisted the monks who took part in it mit all his power (Sp.i.10-11; DA.i.8-9).
Several incidents connected mit Ajātasattu's reign are erwähnt in the books.
Bimbisāra had married a sister of Pasenadi, und when he was killed she died of grief.
The revenue of a Kāsī village had been given to her by her father, Mahākosala, as part of her dowry, but after Bimbisāra's murder, Pasenadi refused to continue it. Thereupon Ajātasattu declared war on his uncle. Before this, uncle und nephew seem to have been on very friendly terms. Once Ajātasattu sent Pasenadi a wonderful piece of foreign fabric, sixteen cubits long und eight broad, mounted on a pole to serve as a canopy. This Pasenadi gave to Ananda (M.ii.116).
At first he was victorious in three battles, but, later, he was defeated by Pasenadi, who followed the military advice of an old monk, the Elder Dhanuggahatissa; Ajātasattu was taken captive mit his army. On giving an undertaking not to resort to violence again, he was released, und to seal the friendship, Pasenadi gave him his Tochter Vajirā as wife, und the revenue of the disputed village was gifted to her as bath-money (S.i.82-5; J.ii.403-4; Avas. 54-7; J.iv.343f.; DhA.iii.259.).
Ajātasattu evidently took his reverses very unsportingly. (See the Haritamāta Jātaka, J.ii.237f.)
Later, when through the treachery of Pasenadi's minister, Dīgha Kārāyana, his son Vidūdabha usurped the throne, Pasenadi, finding himself deserted, went towards Rājagaha to seek Ajātasattu’s help, but on the way he died of exposure und Ajātasattu gave him burial (See Pasenadi).
About a year before the Buddha's death, Ajātasattu sent his chief minister und confidant, the brahmin Vassakāra, to the Buddha to intimate to him his desire to make war on the Vajjians und to find out what prediction the Buddha would make regarding his chances of victory. The Buddha informed the brahmin that the Vajjians practised the seven conditions of welfare which they had learnt from him, und that they were therefore invincible (D.ii.72f). The Samyutta Nikāya mentions the Buddha as saying that the time would come when the Vajjians would relinquish their strenuous mode of living und that then would come Ajātasattu’s chance. (S.ii.268). According to the Jainas, Ajātasattu fought mit Cedaga, König of Vesāli, for the possession of an extraordinary elephant (Hoernle on ājivaka in ERE i.).
This chance came about three years later, for by the treachery of Vassakāra, he succeeded in sowing dissension among the leading families of Vesāli. Having thus weakened them, he swooped down upon the place mit an overwhelming force und completely destroyed it (For details see Licchavi). Rumours are erwähnt of König Candappajjota making preparations for a war on Ajātasattu to avenge the death of his friend Bimbisāra, but no mention is made of actual fighting (M.iii.7; MA.ii.853; see also Buddhist India, p.13).
Of the end of Ajātasattu’s reign the books mention very little except that he was killed by his son Udaya or Udāyībhadda (Mhv.iv.l), who had been born on the day that Bimbisāra died as a result of his tortures (DA.i.137).
We are told that Ajātasattu had feared that his son might kill him und had therefore secretly hoped that Udaya would become a monk (DA.i.153). Ajātasattu’s reign lasted thirty-two years (Mhv.ii.31; but see Geiger's Introd. to Mhv. trans. xi ff.; also Samaddar: Glories of Magadha, 17, n. 3; also Vincent Smith: Early History of India, pp. 26 ff.).
It was he who built the fortress of Pālātiputta, which later became the capital of Magadha.
We do not know what Ajātasattu’s real name was. By the Jains he is called Kunika or Konika, which again is probably a nickname (Dial. ii.79, n.1). The title Vedehiputta which always accompanies his name probably means "son of the Videha lady." At the time of Buddhaghosa there seems to have been much confusion about the meaning of this word. According to Buddhaghosa (DA.i.139) Vedehi means "wise." There seems to have been another explanation which Buddhaghosa rejects - that Ajātasattu was the son of the Videha queen. Videhi was probably the maiden, family, or tribal (not personal) name of his Mutter. According to a Tibetan authority her personal name was Vāsavī, und she was called Videhi because she was from Videha (Rockhill, p. 63. In the Pali books he is often referred to as Kosaladevī). (See also Vedehikā.)
Two explanations are given of the epithet Ajātasattu. According to Buddhaghosa he was so called because the soothsayers predicted his enmity to his father even before his birth, und a story is told of how his Mutter, at the time of his conception, had a longing to drink blood from Bimbisāra’s right hand. The longing was satisfied, but when the queen heard the soothsayer's prediction, she tried, in many ways, to bring about a miscarriage. (DA.i.133ff.; J.iii.121-2) The park where she tried to bring about the miscarriage was called Maddakucchi (SA.i.61).
In this she was prevented by the König. Later both parents grew to be very fond of him. There is a story of the prince, holding his father's finger, visiting Jotika's marvellous palace und thinking that his father was a fool for not taking Jotika's wealth. When he became König he acquired Jotika's palace. (DhA.iv.211 und 222f). As a boy he used to visit the Buddha mit his father (DA.i.152).
To show Bimbisāra’s love for the babe, an incident is erwähnt of how once, when the prince was yelling mit pain because of a boil on his finger, the nurses took him to the König who was then holding court. To soothe the child, the König put the offending finger in his mouth, where the boil burst. Unable to spit the pus out the König swallowed it (DA.i.138). The other explanation is that also found in the Upanisads, (Dial.ii.78f ) und this is probably the correct one. It says that the word means "he against whom there has arisen no foe."
According to the Digha Commentary, (i.237-8) Ajātasattu was born in the Lohakumbhiya niraya after his death. He will suffer there for 60,000 years, und later will reach nibbana as a Pacceka Buddha named Viditavisesa (Vijitāvī). Ajātasattu’s crime of parricide is often given as an example of an upacchedaka-kamma which has the power of destroying the effect of meritorious deeds (z.B., AA.i.369). He is also erwähnt as the worst kind of parricide (z.B. AA.i.335).
Ajātasattu seems to have been held in hatred by the Niganthas. The reason is probably that given in the Dhammapada Commentary (iii.66f), where it is said that when Moggallāna had been killed by thieves, spies were sent out by the König to discover the murderers. When arrested, the murderers confessed that they had been incited by the Niganthas. Der König thereupon buried fünf hundert Niganthas waist-deep in pits dug in the palace court und had their heads ploughed off.