Attempt at a chronological fixing of terms not found, or not found in this
form or meaning, in the oldest parts of the Sutta Pitaka.
This term is probably used for the first time
in Abh. S., though already in Vis.M. XIV the 4 cetasika
in question are mentioned amongst the mental factors associated with each of the
12 akusala-cittas (Tab. I, 22-33), while in the Abhidhamma Pitaka (Dhs.
§§ 365-429) uddhacca is found only in the last of the 12 cittas,
missing in all the remaining 11 cittas.
ānantarika-kamma: This term seems to be used for the first time in Kath.
(190) of the Abh. Canon; the 5 crimes mentioned, however, are already enumerated
and explained in the old Sutta texts (e.g. A.V, 129), as is to be seen from the
main part of this work.
ārammana: s. paccaya, 2.
avacara: kāmāvacara is already met with in the oldest sutta texts
(e.g. D. 1). Rūpāvacara and arūpāvacara,
however, occur probably for the first time in Pts.M. (I. 83ff.), while in the
Abhidhamma Canon and the Com. all the 3 terms are frequently mentioned and
āvajjana: s. citta-vīthi.
avyākata: This term in the sense of 'amoral' or 'karmically neutral',
does not occur in the old sutta texts, while it is found in Pts.M. (e.g. I,
79ff). It plays an important role in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs.) and the
āyūhana: probably met with for the first time in Pts.M. (I . 10f.).
bhava: The 2-fold division, kamma and upapatti,
is probably found for the first time in Vibh. of the Abh. Canon, but it
expresses throughout the genuine teaching of the suttas.
as an isolated word, signifying-the physical nature or faculties
of sex, probably occurs only in the Com. The expression itthibhāva
and purisabhāva, with the meaning of 'being a man', or 'being a woman',
or after ñatvā, etc., as for instance tassā itthibhāvam ñatvā:
'knowing her to be a woman': such expressions are often found in the oldest
These 2 compound terms belong exclusively to the
exegetical literature, while the term bhavanga is several times, briefly
and unexplained, mentioned in the Patth. of the Abh. Canon, as though already
known at that time.
carita: rāga-c., dosa-c., buddhi-c., etc., are only to be met with
in the Com. and Vis.M.
and vāritta-sila: are only found in the Com., as Vis.M.
1, etc., but the teaching indicated by it is frequently mentioned in the old
sutta texts as karanīya and akaranīya (e.g. A. II, 16).
This term oceurs often in the old sutta texts, but only as adj.
(e.g. cetasikam sukham, etc.) or, at times, used as a sing. neut.
noun (e.g. D. 1; p. 213, PTS). As a designation for mental factors, or
concomitants of consciousness (citta-sampayuttā dhammā), it is frequently
met with in Dhs. (§ 1189, 1512) as cetasika-dhamma, while in Vis.M., Abh.
S., etc., cetasika is used also as a neuter noun, in the sense of mental
-mudūta, -kammaññatā, -pāguññatā, -ujukatā: s.
as well as all terms for the various functions within the
processes of consciousness, such as āvajjana-citta, sampaticchana, santīrana,
votthapana, javana, tadārammana, bhavanga, cuti:
none of these terms is found in the Sutta Canon. except javana, in Pts.M.
Even in the Ahh. Canon (e.g. Patth) only javana and bhavanga are
twice or thrice briefly mentioned. The stages, however, must have been more or
less known. Cf. e.g Patth: ''Cakkhu-viññānam tam sampayuttakā ca dhammā (=
cetasikā) mano-dhātuyā (performing the sampaticchana-function),
tam sampayuttakānañ ca dhammānam (cetasikānani) anantara-paccayena paccayo.
Mano-dhātu ... manoviññāna-dhātuya (performing the santīrana
and votthapana function).... Purimā purimā kusalā dhammā (javanā) pacchimānam
pacchimānam kusalānam dhammānam (javanacittānam) anantara-paccayena paccayo...
avyākatānam dhammānam (tadārammana- and bhavanga-cittānam....)." cuti-citta:
dhātu-vavatthāna: This term is first used in Pts.M. while the subject in
question is often treated in the old sutta texts (e.g. M. 28, 62, 140, etc.).
This compound term is used only in the Com. The only place in
the suttas where the first part, dhuta, is used in the above sense, is
found in S. XIV. The names of the performers of these 13 ascetical exercises,
however, are all mentioned in the suttas, but scattered here and there, for
instance: pamsukūlika, āraññika, pindapātika, ekāsanika, tecīvarika,
sapādānacārī, sosānika, abhhokāsika, nesajjika, yathāsanthatika, in M. 5,
113; A. V, 181-190, etc.; rukkhamūlika, khalupacchābhattika and
pattapindika in A. V, 189f. etc.
iddhi: Most, or perhaps all, of the 10 terms listed at Vis.M. XII, as
adhitthāna, etc., are absent in the older sutta texts. In Pts.M. (II,
205-214), however, they are enumerated in due order and minutely explained. The
magical powers indicated by these terms are, nevertheless, for the most part
explicitly described already in the oldest sutta texts. Cf. D. 34; M. 3; A. III,
This term is probably found for the first time in the
Com., esp. Vis.M. IV. The rudiments of this doctrine, however, are already found
in the old sutta texts, e.g. A. III, 100.
javana: The only reference in the Sutta Pitaka is Pts.M. II, 73:
kusalakammassa javana-khane, "in the impulsion-moment of a wholesome karma."
In the Abhidhamma Pitaka it is briefly mentioned in the Patthāna, but without
explanation, as if already known. The teaching of the flashing forth of 4
javana immediately before entering the jhāna
or lokuttara-magga, i.e. parikamma, upacāra, anuloma, gotrabhū
is, as such, without doubt a later development in the commentarial literature.
kalāpa: This doctrinal term, as well as the doctrine of the different
corporeal units or groups, such as the suddhatthaka-k., jīvitanavaka-k.,
cakkhudasaka-k., etc. (s. Vis.M. XVIII), belong only to the later
developments of exegetical literature, as Vis.M. etc.
Vatthu-k. and kilesa-k. are probably found for the
first time in MNid. 1. They correspond to the pañca kāmagunā
(cakkhu-viññeyyā rūpā, etc.) and kāma-rāga in the older sutta
texts (e.g A. VI, 68).
ahosi-, janaka-, garuka-, bahula-, upatthambhaka-, upaghātaka-,
upapīlaka-, maranāsanna-, upacchedaka-k.
None of these terms is found in the Sutta or Abh. Canon. They have been
introduced by the commentators (e.g. in Abh. S. and Vis.M.) for the purpose of a
systematical grouping of the various aspects and functions of karma. The term
however, occurs repeatedly in the Abh. Canon in such expressions as: 'Yasmim
samaye ... kusalassa kammassa katattā ... cakkhuviññānam hoti....' (Dhs. §
431); or: 'Yam atthi rūpam kammassa katattā ....' (Dhs. § 653); or
'katattā ca rūpānam' (Patth.), etc.
This term, as a designation for the meditation exercises
(bhāvanā), is found only in the Com. In the suttas the word is only used in
a concrete sense for 'field of activity or occupation', as agriculture, trade,
-mudutā, -kammaññatā, -pāguññatā, -ujukatā, s.
The 3 phases in a moment of consciousness, i.e. uppāda, thiti,
bhanga, are probably mentioned for the first time in the commentaries; but
there is a close parallel in two sutta texts which may have been the source for
that teaching of a three-phased moment of consciousness:
"There are 3 characteristics of what is conditioned (sankhatassa
lakkhanā): an arising (uppādo) is apparent, a passing away (vayo)
is apparent, a change in the existing (thitassa aññathattam: Com. =
ageing) is apparent" (A. III, 47). The same 3 phases are mentioned in S. XXII,
37, where they are applied to each of the 5 khandha.
the 10 kilesa are probably for the first time enumerated and
explained in Dhs. (§§ 1229-1239). There they are, however, called
kilesa-vatthu, which name (dasa kilesa-vatthu) is already mentioned
in Pts I, 130, though there they are neither enumerated nor explained.
(kiriyā, kriyā) citta is a term first used in the
Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. §§ 566-582). It has an important place in post-canonical
Abh. literature, e.g. Vis.M. XIV.
lahutā, mudutā, kammaññatā: as rūpassa-, kāya-, or citta-, are for
the first time found in the Abh. Canon, esp. Dhs. All, however, perhaps with the
sole exception of paguññatā, are implied in the Sutta Canon, e.g.
'citte mudu-bhūte kammanīye' (M 4); 'lahu-saññañ ca kāye okkamitvā'
(S. LI. 22); 'cittam ujukam akamsu' (S. I. 26; PTS). Kāya-passaddhi
and citta-passaddhi, however, are well known in the old sutta texts in
ñāna: Of the 9 kinds of insight-knowledge constituting the
patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi (s. Vis.M. XXI), the following 6 are, as such,
enumerated and explained for the first time in Pts.M., namely:
- bhangānupassanā-ñāna, (ib. 57f.).
The terms udayabbaya and bhanga, in connection with the 5
groups of existence, however, are often met with in the old sutta texts. Of the
remaining 3 kinds of knowledge, ādīnavānupassanā, nibbidānupassanā and
anulomañāna, the first 2 occur often in the old sutta texts, while
anuloma-ñāna, though only briefly mentioned in the Abh. Canon (Patth.),
plays a prominent part in the exegetical literature.
While the terms sekha and asekha
occur frequently in the old sutta texts (e.g. A. II, 4: 'sekho ca asekho ca
imasmim loke... āhuneyyā' etc.), the term n'eva-sekha-n'āsekha is
perhaps mentioned for the first time in Pug. of the Abh. Canon.
The 2 terms kilesa- and khandha-parinibbāna
(or nibbāna) are found only in the Com.; their corresponding 2 aspects
and anupādisesa-nibbāna, however, are mentioned and explained in It. 44
of the Sutta Canon.
As signifying the mental reflex-image occurring in meditation,
this term, singly or in compounds (parikkamma-, uggaha-, patibhāga-n.),
is found only in the Com., Vis.M., etc. The same holds good for
These two terms, in combination with tanhā
and ditthi, belong probably, as such, to the commentarial literature,
e.g. Vis.M. I.
The compound words utu-, bīja-, kamma-, citta-, and
dhamma-niyāma, probably occur for the first time in the Com. Niyāmatā,
however, occurs often in the old sutta texts, e.g. 'thitā va sā dhātu
dhammatthitatā dhammaniyāmata...' (A. III. 134. etc.)
is apparently mentioned for the first time in Dhs.
(e.g. § 1028) of the Abh. As a name for the 10th and last of the
akusala-kammapathas, it plays a prominent role in the Com.
paccaya: This term occurs often in the old sutta texts in such
expressions as: 'ko hetu, ko paccayo', 'yam yad eva paccayam paticca
uppajjati viññānam', etc., or as abl. adverb in 'avijjāpaccayā sankhārā'.
All the 24 paccaya are for the first time enumerated, explained and
applied to the phenomena of existence in the Abh. Canon (Patth). Of these 24
paccaya, 5 are already mentioned in Pts.M. (II, 49-54, 59f., 72-77), namely,
sahajāta-, aññamañña-, nissaya-, sampayutta-, vippayutta-paccaya.
1. Hetu is already used in the sutta texts as 'condition' in a general
and indefinite way, as a synonym of paccaya. In the sense of kusala
and akusala roots (mūla; s. M. 9), however, it is only found in
the Abh. Canon and Com.
2. ārammana has in the 'sutta texts only the meaning of 'foundation',
or 'basis', or 'dependent on', e.g. M. 21: 'tadārammanañca sabbalokam
mettāsahagatena cetasā pharitvā....' or D.33; S.XXII.53: 'viññānam ...
rūpārammanam ... vedanāram-manam....' As term for the 6 objects,
rūpārammana, saddārammana, etc., it is first used in the Abh. Canon, though
the teaching of dependency of the 6 kinds of viññāna on the 6
sense-objects is an integral part of the suttas. Cf. e.g. M.38: 'cakkhuñca
paticca rūpe ca uppajjati viññānam sotañca paticca sadde ca ...' etc.
3. Adhipati, as a philosophical term, occurs for the first time in the
Abh. Canon (esp. Patth.). The 4 adhipati are in the suttas called
iddhipāda (e.g. S. LI. 11). In the old sutta texts, 3 adhipateyya
are however mentioned: atta-, loka-, dhamma- (A. III, 38).
4. & 5. Anantara- and samanantara-paccaya occur, as paccaya,
for the first time in the Abh. Canon (esp. Patth.). In a veiled form, however,
we find the first term in the old sutta texts (e.g. Ratana Sutta in Khp. and
Sn.): 'samādhim ānantarikaññamāhu': the concentration (associated with
the arahatta-magga), which is called the 'immediate' condition (for
6. & 7. Sahajāta and aññamañña-paccaya.
Though these terms, as such, are not found in the older sutta texts, still the
teaching of the conascent and mutual conditionedness of the 4 mental groups
(vedanā, saññā, sankhāra, viññāna) is taught in the old texts, e.g. M. 28,
43; S. XXII, etc.
8. Nissaya-paccaya is mentioned in Pts; s. first paragraph of this
9. Upanissaya-paccaya. Though this name is not found in the suttas,
the teaching expressed thereby is, however, frequently met with there, sometimes
even in the form of upanisā (apparently a contraction of upanissaya),
e.g. S. XII, 23: 'Yam pi'ssa tam bhikkhave khayasmim khaye ñānam, tam
sa-upanisam vadāmi, no anupanisam '. The terms pakati-, ārammana- and
anantara-upanissaya are later developments of the Abh. Com.
All the remaining terms are met with only in the Abh. literature though the
substance is, perhaps in all cases, already dealt with in the old sutta texts.
This term is not found in the Sutta Canon, nor apparently
in the Abh. Canon, but very often used in the exegetical literature. The idea,
however, expressed thereby, is implied in many places of the old sutta texts,
e.g., A. IX, 36, where it is shown how the jhānas,
one after the other, may serve as basis, or foundation (as mental object), for
In many of the old sutta texts it is also shown how the 4th jhāna forms
the foundation for the attainment of the 5 higher spiritual powers (abhiññā).
pāguññatā: s. lahutā.
pahāna: The 5 terms, as vikkhambhana, etc., are, as such, not
found in the old sutta texts, but they are enumerated and explained already in
Pts.M. (II. 179f.).
palibodha: This 10-fold group is perhaps for the first time mentioned in
Khp. Com. and explained in Vis.M. III.
pañca-dvārāvajjana: s. āvajjana.
paramattha s. vohāra-desanā.
pāramī, pāramitā: Only the Com. deals with this subject, apart from the 3
apocryphal works, Buddhavamsa and Cariyapitaka, and the Jātaka.
paricchinnākāsa: This term is used in the Com. for the term
ākāsa-kasina used in the older sutta texts.
pariññā: ñāta-, tīrana-, pahāna-p., belong to the exegetical
literature, but they are already implied in Pts.M. I. 87: 'Abhiññā-paññā
ñātatthe ñānam, pariññā-paññā tīranatthe ñānam, pahāna-paññā pariccāgatthe ñānam
... ye ye dhammā abhiññātā honti, te te dhammā ñāta honti ... tīritā ...
pariyatti, patipatti, pativedha: The first of these 3 fundamental terms,
especially in this 3-fold grouping, belongs to the commentarial literature,
though the idea expressed thereby is often found in the suttas in such
expressions as: 'dhammam pariyāpunāti suttam geyyam veyyākaranam ....'
The 2 other terms are found separately in the suttas.
patipannaka: occurs in Pug. 17.
patipatti: s. pariyatti.
patisandhi: is chiefly a commentarial term; but it occurs several times
in one of the later books of the Sutta Pitaka, the Patisambhidā Magga (Pts.M. I,
11f, 52, 59f.; II, 72f.). The usual sutta term for 'rebirth' is
patisandhika: ahetu-, dvihetu-, and tihetu-p.:
are purely commentarial terms. For patisandhi-citta, s. citta-vīthi.
pativedha: s. pariyatti.
pattidāna: This term is found only in the Com., but the belief expressed
by it is several times mentioned in the older sutta texts. Cf. the main part of
rūpa: the terms nipphanna-rūpa and rūpa-rūpa
are used only in the Com., although sappatigha and pasāda are
already found in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. §§ 585, 597f.), while upādinna
occurs repeatedly in the old sutta texts, e.g. M. 28, apparently with the
meaning given in the main part of this work. Cf. further upādā-rūpa.
ujukatā: s. lahutā.
is an Abh. term but already alluded to in the old sutta texts,
e.g. M. 149: 'āyatim pañcūpādānakkhandhā upacayam gacchanti', or in D.2:
'Ayam kāyo ... odana-kummās' upacayo'.
is, as such, an Abh. term, but it is used with the same
meaning in the sutta texts, c.g. in M. 9: 'catunnañ ca mahābhūtānam upādāyn
rūpam'. Upādā is an abbreviation of upādāya