Son of Susunāga and king of Magadha for twenty-eight years. The tenth year of his reign completed one hundred years from the date of the Buddha's death.
During the reign of Kālāsoka the Vajjian heresy appeared among the Sangha, and at first the king took the side of the Vajjians. Later, his sister Nandā persuaded him to transfer his patronage to the orthodox monks, and a convocation was held, with his support, at the Vālikārāma in Vesāli, at which the Vajjians were proved in the wrong. (Mhv.iv.7, 8, 9, 31, 38, 39, 42, 63; Dpv.iv.44, 52; v.25, 80, 99; Sp i.33).
Kālāsoka had ten sons, who carried on the government after him for twenty-two years (Mhv.v.14). He and Pandukābhaya were contemporary kings for many years (Sp.i.72).
The names of his ten sons were: Bhaddasena, Korandavanna, Mangura, Sabbañjaha, Jālika, Ubhaka, Sañjaya, Korabya, Nandivaddhana, and Pañcamaka. Mbv. p.98.
There is great difference of opinion as to the identity of Kālāsoka. Some hold that he is the same as Kākavanna of the Purānas and Udāyin of the Jaina traditions, and that these names are merely other appellations of Udayabhadda of the Pali sources. Kālāsoka is credited with having removed the capital of Magadha from Rājagaha to Pātaliputta. The whole question of Kālāsoka is discussed by Geiger in his Introd. to the Mhv.Trs.xliii.f.