A secondary division of the Vajjiputtakā, their immediate parent-body being the Mahāsanghikas.
Later, from the Gokulikas, sprang two other schools - the Paññattivādins and the Bāhulikas (or Bahussutikas) (Dpv.v.40; Mhv.v.4f.; Mbv., p.96).
Their most important heresy seems to have been that they considered all sankhāras, without qualification, no better than a heap of embers (kukkula) whence the flames have died out as from an inferno of ashes. They based this view on the Buddha's declaration made in the Adittapariyāya Sutta ("All is on fire, bhikkhus") (Kvu.ii.7, p.208, and Points of Controversy, 127f).
This view was probably responsible for their other name of (Kukkulikas or Kukkutikas) (Rockhill, 186ff). It may be that Kukkulika was their earlier name, of which Gokulikā was either a corruption or a derivation from the name of one of their teachers. But all Pāli records give only the "Gokulika" reading.