Name of the first sermon, preached by the Buddha, to the Pañcavaggiyas at the Migadāya in Isipatana, on the full-moon day of āsālha. The sutta contains the fundamental principles of the Buddha's teaching - the avoidance of the two extremes of asceticism and luxury and the four Ariyan truths including the Ariyan Eightfold Way.
There was great rejoicing throughout the Cakkavāla at the preaching of the sermon, and at its conclusion Kondañña attained to realisation of the Truth - hence his name, Aññā-Kondañña. Vin.i.10f; the sutta is also given in S.v.420ff; in neither context is the name of the sutta given as such; the name occurs only in the Commentaries - e.g., J.i.82; DA.i.2; AA.i.69, etc; the Sanskrit version is found in Lal.540 (416)f., and in Mtu.iii.330f.
The sermon was later preached by the Thera Majjhima in the Himālaya country, when eighty thousand crores of beings understood the Doctrine (Mhv.xii.41; Dpv.viii.11).
It was also preached by Mahinda in Ceylon in the Nandanavana, when one thousand persons were converted. Mhv.xv.200; Dpv.xiv.46, etc.